All posts by Petra

Female referee milestones – in men’s top football

female referee milestones

What are the female referee milestones? That is the subject of this article.

Edith Klinger from Austria is considered to be the first female referee in the world to officiate both men’s and women’s matches. She was active from 1935 to 1938 – also as founder of the 1. Damen-Fußball-Club Kolossal in Wien. (More about Edith Klinger at Ballesterer and Playing Pasts, including literature note.)

The development of female referees only took off in the 1960s. The first female referees were Asaléa “Léa” de Campos Fornero Medina (*1944 oder 1945, Brazil) and Drahşan Arda (*1940er, Turkey) who both completed their referee training in 1967.

They were followed by:

  • 1969: Sabine Asgodom (*1953), Germany
  • 1970: Gloria Ramírez (*1953), Guatemala
  • 1975: Munira Ramadan (*??)
  • 1976: Wendy Toms (*1962), England
  • 1978: Sonia Denoncourt (*1964), Canada
  • 1978: Ghislaine Peron-Labbé (*1961), France
There are certainly still many female referees missing here. To complete the female referee milestones, I am grateful for supplements of female referees who completed their training in the 1960s and 1970s or even before.
It is constantly updated – current status: 20 March 2021. Additions are always welcome per e-mail.

In men’s football

Not every one of them, however, was appointed to men’s football. And in top men’s football, only Ghislaine Peron-Labbé, Wendy Toms and Munira Ramadan were appointed. At that time, as is well known, there were even more misjudgements by men than today about what women could achieve and improve in the sport.

For the sake of clarity, the following overview is limited only to women referees officiating in men’s continental football competitions and the national 1st leagues.

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This overview is regularly supplemented and updated. The status here is therefore not set in stone, but reflects my current state of research. I therefore recommend not to use the form “The first female referee was …” but “The first female referee known so far was …”.

Dates from Tonga are missing. Since women’s football is not of a high standard there, it has been taken for granted for many years that referees of any gender officiate matches in men’s football. It is possible that many a milestone from Tonga is still missing from the overview.

Female referee milestones – The history and development of female referees in men’s football

Vor 1996 – Bernadettar Kwimbira, Malawi
First female match official and assistant referee in a men’s 1st division in the world – and in CAF, namely the Malawian Super League.

27 August 1997 – Wendy Toms, England
First female match official and assistant referee in a UEFA men’s 1st division, namely the Premier League.

29 August 1998 – Sandra Hunt und Nancy Lay, USA
First female referee in a men’s 1st division in the world and CONCACAF, namely MLS.

5 June 1999 – Nelly Viennot, France
First female match official and assistant referee in a UEFA men’s continental league tournament, namely the UEFA European Championship Qualification.

30 May 1999 – Nicole Petignat, Switzerland
First female referee in a UEFA men’s 1st division, namely the Swiss Super League.

24 August 2000 – Nelly Viennot, France
First female match official and assistant referee in a UEFA continental men’s club tournament, namely the UEFA Cup Qualification (UEFA Europa League).

23 June 2003 – Silvia Regina de Oliveira & Ana Paula Oliveira & Aline Lopes Lambert, Brazil
First female match officials in Brazil and CONMEBOL, also the first match in the world in a men’s 1st division to be officiated by three women, in Serie A.

1 October 2003 – Silvia Regina de Oliveira, Brasilien
First female match official in a club competition in CONMEBOL men’s football, namely the Copa Sudamericana.

(unknown date) 2004 – Bola Abidoye, Nigeria
First female referee in a men’s 1st division in CAF, namely the Nigeria Professional Football League.

14 October 2007 – Sarah Ho, Australia
First female assistant referee in a men’s 1st division in AFC, namely the A League.

3 August 2014 – Maria Rebello, India
Fist female referee in a men’s 1st Division in AFC, namely the I League.

14 May 2019 – Yoshimi Yamashita & Naomi Teshirogi & Makoto Bozono, Japan
First female referee and assistant referees in a continental men’s football club competition in AFC, namely the AFC Cup.

2 September 2019 – Ilisapeti Malekamu, Tonga
First female referee in a continental men’s football international competition in OFC, namely the OFC Confed Cup.

13 November 2019 – Lidwine Pelagie Rakotozafinoro, Madagascar
First female assistant referee in a continental men’s football international competition in CAF, namely the Africa Cup of Nations Qualification.

6 September 2020 – Stéphanie Frappart, France
First female referee in a continental men’s football international competition in UEFA, namely the Nations League.

23 January 2004 – Lidya Tafesse Abebe, Ethiopia
First female referee in a continental men’s football international competition in CAF, namely the African Nations Championship.

7 February 2021 – Edina Battista Alves, Brazil & Mariana de Almeida, Argentinia & Neuza Back, Brazil
First female referee and assistant referees in men’s football club competition in FIFA, namely the Club World Cup.

24 March 2021 – Karen Díaz Medina & Francia González, Mexico
First female match officials and assistant referees in men’s football FIFA competition, namely the World Cup Qualification.

27 March 2021 – Stéphanie Frappart, France
First female referee in men’s football FIFA competition, namely the World Cup Qualification.

10 April 2021 – Akhona Makalima, South Africa
First female match official in a continental men’s football club competition in CAF, namely the Champions League.

Female referees in football – All in top men’s football

female referees in football

There are more and more female referees in football. But which female referees and assistant referees have bee in men’s football in the continental competitions and in the national 1st division? Or are they still? You can find the answer here: To date, there have been at least 166 female referees in football. Here you can find their names and when and where they were first appointed.

This overview gathers all female teams in continental competitions of men’s football as well as nationally in the respective first division.
It is constantly updated – current status: 12 April 2021. Additions are always welcome per e-mail.

Sorted by continent and alphabet

The match officials are sorted here first by their continental association, further down in alphabetical order.

… and maps

They are supplemented by maps showing which female football referees there are and were in the individual countries. They are coloured differently: countries with referees are coloured dark green, countries with assistant referees are coloured light green. Countries where both female referees and assistant referees are or were used in football are marked in both colours.

Female referees in football – sorted by continental association

The listing is done according to this scheme:

Firstname Name (nationality, year of first appearance in: competition).

female referees in football

FIFA

Referees

  • Edina Alves Battista (Brazil, 2019: Brazilian Serie A, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Stéphanie Frappart (France, 2019: French Ligue 1, 2019: Super Cup, 2020: Nations League, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Champions League, 2021: World Cup Qualification)

Assistant Referees

  • Mariana de Almeida (Argentinia, 2017: Argentinian Primera División, 2020: Copa Libertadores, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Neuza Back (Brazil, 2009: Brazilian Serie A, 2020: Copa Sudamericana, 2021: Club World Cup)

CAF (Africa)

Referees

  • Lidya Tafesse Abebe (Ethiopia, 2011: Ethiopian Premier League, 2021: African Nations Championship)
  • Bola Abidoye (Nigeria, 2004: Nigeria Professional Football League)
  • Folusho Ajayi (Nigeria, season 2016/17: Nigeria Professional Football League)
  • Precious Amara (Sierra Leone, 2019: Sierra Leonean Premier League)
  • Aïssata Amégée (Togo, 2009: Togolese Championnat National)
  • Juliet Appiah (Ghana, 2018: Ghanania Premier League)
  • Lamia Athmana (Algeria, 2020: Algerian Lique Professionnelle 1)
  • Ella Banda (Malawi, before 2011: Malawian Super League)
  • Marximina Bernardo (Angola , 2004: Girabola)
  • Theresa Bremansu (Ghana, 2012 or 2018: Ghanania Premier League)
  • Agness Chamayere (Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Fadouma Dia (Senegal, 2009: Senegalese Ligue 1)
  • Dorsaf Ganouati (Tunisia, 2019: Championnat de Tunisie)
  • Eness Gumbo (Malawi, after 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Suavis Iratunga (Burundi, 2016: Burundian Ligue A)
  • Bouchra Karboubi (Morocco, 2020: Moroccan Groupement National de Football 1)
  • Mathabo Kolokotoane (Lesotho, 2013 or 2014: Lesotho Premier League)
  • Julia Lekgowe (Botswana, 2015: Botswana Premier League)
  • Aissata Boudy Lengwe (Mauretania, 2019: Ligue 1 Mauretania as 4th Official)
  • Gladys Lengwe (Zambia, 2011: Super Division of Zambia)
  • Aurore Christelle M. Ligan (Benin, ??: Championnat National du Benin)
  • Akhona Makalima (South Africa, 2015: Premier Soccer League of South Africa)
  • Baitse Manca (South Africa, ??: Premier Soccer League of South Africa)
  • Fatmata Mansaray (Sierra Leone, 2019: Sierra Leonean Premier League)
  • Tito Matankiso (South Africa, ??: Premier Soccer League of South Africa)
  • Deidre Mitchell (South Africa, 2007: Premier Soccer League of South Africa)
  • Salima Mukansanga (Rwanda, 2018: Rwandan National Football League)
  • Ema Novo (Mosambique, 2021: Moçambola)
  • Martha Nyekanyeka (Malawi (before 2007: Malawian Super League)
  • Jonesia Rukaya Kabakama (Tanzania, before 2015: Tanzanian Premier League)
  • Ndèye Fatou Sère (Senegal, ??: Senegalese Ligue 1)
  • Vistoria Nuusiku Shangula (Namibia, 2019: Namibia Premier League)
  • Jane Silungwe (Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Adama Turay (Sierra Leone, 2019: Sierra Leonean Premier League)
  • Letticia Viana (Eswatini, 2007: Premier League of Eswatini)
  • Rose Zimba (Malawi, before 2019: Malawian Super League)

 

Assistant Referees

  • Fatiha Al-Jarmouni (Morocco, 2017: Moroccan Groupement National de Football 1)
  • Carine Atezambong Fomo (Cameroon, 2014: Cameroonian Première Division, 2021: African Nations Championship)
  • Olinda Augusto (Mosambique, 2021: Moçambola)
  • Monia Bedoui (Tunisia, 1997: Championnat de Tunisie)
  • Leopoldina Ross Davies (Guiné-Bissau, ??: Campeonato Nacional da Guiné-Bissau)
  • Marliatou Diallo (Guinea, 2016: Guinean Ligue 1)
  • Mimisen Agatha Iyorhe (Nigeria, 2015: Nigeria Professional Football League, 2021: African Nations Championship)
  • Doreen Kendi (Kenya, 2017: Kenyan Premier League)
  • Bernadettar Kwimbira (Malawi, before 1996: Malawian Super League, 2021: African Nations Championship)
  • Yvone Letota (Botswana, before 2016: Botswana Premier League)
  • Peggy Manca (South Africa, 2004: South African Premier Soccer League) – Caution: She was not the first female match official in the South African Premier Soccer League. Unfortunately, I do not know the name of the first official.
  • Happiness Mbandambanda (Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Christina Mkweu (Malawi, before 2021: Malawian Super League)
  • Faith Mloyi (Zimbabwe, 2019: Zimbabwean Premier Soccer League)
  • Roda Mondlane (Mosambique, 2021: Moçambola)
  • Salima Mukansanga (Rwanda, 2018: Rwandan National Football League)
  • Lidwine Pelagie Rakotozafinoro (Madagascar, after 2018: Madagascan THB Champions League, 2019: Africa Cup of Nations Qualification)
  • Tshepiso Ramothogobeng (Botswana, 2015: Botswana Premier League)
  • Stella Ruvinga (Zimbabwe, before 2014: Zimbabwean Premier Soccer League)
  • Eliza Sichinga (Malawi, after 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Claris Simango (Zimbabwe, approx. 2014: Zimbabwean Premier Soccer League)
  • Elodie Somé (Burkina Faso, before 2019: Première Division of Burkina Faso)

Unknown: Referees or Assistant Referees

In the case of a few Malawian female referees in football, I do not know whether they were referees or assistant referees.

  • Memory Chihana (Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Christina Chioko (Malawi, before 2021: Malawian Super League)
  • Maureen Dzinkambani (Malawi, ??: Malawian Super League)
  • Ethel Majawa (Malawi, ??: Malawian Super League)
  • Charity Ndozi Mlumbe (Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Martha Nyirenda (Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)

AFC (Asia with Australia)

Referees

  • Kate Jacewicz (Australia, 2020: A League)
  • Maria Rebello (India, 2014: I League)
  • Casey Reibelt (Australia, 2020: A League)
  • Yoshimi Yamashita (Japan, 2019: AFC Cup) 

Assistant Referees

  • Makoto Bozono (Japan, 2019: AFC Cup)
  • Sarah Ho (Australia, 2007: A League)
  • Sarah Jones (New Zealand, 2016: A League)
  • Naomi Teshirogi (Japan, 2019: AFC Cup)

OFC (Oceania without Australia)

Referees

  • Mercy Kayira (New Zealand, 2019: New Zealand Football Championship)
  • Annemarie Tuafe (Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • Tapaita Tutone (Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)

Assistant Referees

  • Nicola Holika (Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • Lata-I-Sia Kaumatule (Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • ‘Ofaloto La’ie La’akulu (Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • Ilisapeti Malekamu (Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League, 2019: OFC Confed Cup)
  • Telesia Teisina (Tonga, before 2019: Tonga Major League)

UEFA (Europe)

Referees

  • Paula Brady (Ireland, 2015: League of Ireland)
  • Dagmar Damková (Czech, 2003: ePojisteni.cz liga)
  • Nastassia Danchanka (Belarus, 2020: Wyschejschaja Liha as 4th Official)
  • Cheryl Foster (Wales, 2018: Cymru Premier)
  • Stéphanie Frappart (France, 2019: French Ligue 1, 2019: Super Cup, 2020: Nations League, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Champions League, 2021: World Cup Qualification)
  • Khatuna Maisuradze (Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga)
  • Kateryna Monzul (Ukraine, 2016: Premjer Liha, 2020: Nations League, 2020: Europa Cup)
  • Tania Morais (Luxemburg, 2013: LuxembourgianBGL Ligue)
  • Nicole Petignat (Switzerland, 1999: Swiss Super League, 2000: Austrian Bundesliga, 2003: Europa League Qualification (formerly known as UEFA Cup), 2006: UI Cup)
  • Anastasiya Romanyuk (Ukraine, 2018: Premjer Liha as 4th Official, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
  • Emanuela Rusta (Albania, 2019: Albanian Kategoria Superiore)
  • Vika Sakhuria (Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga as 4th Official)
  • Esther Staubli (Switzerland, 2018: Swiss Super League as 4th Official)
  • Bibiana Steinhaus (Germany, 2007: German Bundesliga as 4th Official, 2017: German Bundesliga as Referee)
  • Volha Tsiareshka (Belarus, 2020: Wyschejschaja Liha as 4th Official) 

Assistant Referees

  • Oleksandra Ardasheva (Ukraine, 2018: Premjer Liha, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
  • Paula Brady (Ireland, 2010: League of Ireland, 2019: Super League as 4th Official)
  • Cristina Cini (Italy, 2005: Italian Serie A)
  • Kylie Cockburn (née McMullan, 2014: Scottish Professional Football League)
  • Amy Fearn (England, 1997: English Premier League)
  • Ketevan Gaiparashvili (Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga)
  • Gertrude Gebhard (Germany, 1995: German Bundesliga)
  • Svetlana Grushko (Ukraine, 2020: Premjer Liha)
  • Chrysoula Kourompylia (Greece, 2010: Greek Super League, 2014: Europa League as 4th Official, 2015: Champions League Qualification, 2015: Europa League as Referee)
  • Corinne Lagrange (France, 1999: French Ligue 1, 2001: UI Cup, 2003: Europa League, 2005: Chamions League Qualification)
  • Sian Massey-Ellis (England, 2011: English Premier League, 2019: English Europa League)
  • Manuela Nicolosi (France, 2019: Super League)
  • Michelle O’Neill (Ireland, 2019: Super League)
  • Ghislaine Peron-Labbé (France, 1998: French Ligue 1)
  • Guadalupe Porras Ayuso (Spain, 2019: Spanish Primera División, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
  • Sopho Rijamadze (Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga)
  • Veronika Schluchter-Maerki (Switzerland, 1999: Europa League Qualification)
  • Maryna Serhiivna Striletska (Ukraine, 2018: Premjer Liha, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
  • Sara Telek (Austria, 2020: Austrian Bundesliga)
  • Wendy Toms (England, 1997: English Premier League)
  • Nelly Viennot (France, 1996: French Ligue 1, 1999: European Championship Qualification, 2000: Champions League Qualification, 2000: Europa League Qualification, 2001: Champions League, 2003: Europa League)
  • Cari Louise Williams (Wales, 2020: Cymru Premier)

CONMEBOL (South America)

Referees

  • Edina Alves Battista (Brazil, 2019: Brazilian Serie A, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Silvia Regina de Oliveira (Brazil, 2003: Brazilian Serie A, 2003: Copa Sudamericana)
  • Zulma Quiñónez (Paraguay, 2020: División Profesional de la Asociación Paraguaya de Fútbol as VAR)
  • Claudia Umpierrez (Uruguay, 2016: Primera División Uruguaya)

Assistant Referees

  • Mariana de Almeida (Argentinia, 2017: Argentinian Primera División, 2020: Copa Libertadores, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Neuza Back (Brazil, 2009: Brazilian Serie A, 2020: Copa Sudamericana, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Aline Lopes Lambert (Brazil, 2003: Brazilian Serie A)
  • Daiana Milone (Argentinia, 2017: Argentinian Primera División, 2020: Copa Sudamericana, 2020: Copa Libertadores)
  • Cindy Andrea Nahuelcoy Jara (Chile, 2020: Primera División del Fútbol Profesional Chileno as AVAR)
  • Ana Paula Oliveira (Brazil, 2003: Brazilian Serie A, 2005: Copa Libertadores)
  • Gisela Fabiana Trucco, (Argentinia, 2017, Argentinian Primera División)

CONCACAF (North and Middle America)

Referees

  • Melissa Paola Borjas Pastrana (Honduras, 2018: Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional de Honduras)
  • Carol Anne Chenard (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Dianne Ferreira-James (Guyana, 1998: Guyanese GFF National Super League)
  • Stéphanie Fortin (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League, 2021: MLS)
  • Marie-Han Gagnon-Chretien (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League, 2021: MLS)
  • Sylvina Garnett Welma (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Francia María González (Mexico, 2021: Liga MX as 4th Official)
  • Astrid Azucena Gramajo Ramirez (Guatemala, 2020: Liga Nacional de Guatemala as 4th Official, 2021: Liga Nacional de Guatemala as referee)
  • Sandra Hunt (USA, 1998: MLS)
  • Katja Koroleva (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Nancy Lay (USA, 1998: MLS)
  • Myriam Marcotte (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Tori Penso (USA, 2020: MLS)
  • Priscila Eritzel Pérez Borja (Mexico, 2021, Liga MX as 4th Official)
  • Kari Seitz (USA, 1998: MLS)
  • Natalie Simon (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Virginia Tovar Díaz (Mexico, 2004: Liga MX)

Assistant Referees

  • Marie-Soleil Beaudoin (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Chantal Boudreau (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League, 2020: MLS)
  • Marcia Castillo (Mexico, ??: Liga MX)
  • Enedina Caudillo (Mexico, 2016: Liga MX
  • Mayte Ivonne Chávez Garcia (Mexico, 2016: Liga MX)
  • Karen Díaz Medina (Mexico, 2016: Liga MX)
  • Sheena Dickson (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Jennifer Garner (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Gabrielle Lemieux (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Felisha Mariscal (USA, 2020: MLS)
  • Brooke Mayo (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Alicia Messer (USA, 2017 as AVAR)
  • Mayra Alejandra Mora Cereiro (Mexico, 2016: Liga MX)
  • Jessica Fernanda Morales (Mexico, 2020: Liga MX)
  • Kathryn Nesbitt (USA, 2015: MLS)
  • Sandra Elizabeth Ramírez Aleman (Mexico, 2020: Liga MX)
  • Melissa Snedden (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • María Isabel Tovar (Mexico, 2003: Liga MX
  • Tiffani Turpin (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Christina Unkel (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Alexis Vaughan (Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)

All female referees in football (first division & continental competitions)

In this overview you will find, in alphabetical order, all female referees in football, provided they have been appointed in the first men’s league of a country or in a continental competition in men’s football.

Some of these female referees in football are still active, others are not. This is not distinguished here because it is not as easy to tell from the assignments as it is with male colleagues. Because it is not only injuries that lead to a match official not getting a call-up for half a year or a whole year, but also pregnancies. Therefore, the fact that female referees in football and other sports do not officiate for a year or more does not indicate that their career has come to an end.

A
  • Lidya Tafesse Abebe (Referee, Ethiopia, 2011: Ethiopian Premier League, 2021: African Nations Championship)
  • Bola Abidoye (Referee, Nigeria, 2004: Nigeria Professional Football League)
  • Folusho Ajayi (Referee, Nigeria, season 2016/17: Nigeria Professional Football League)
  • Fatiha Al-Jarmouni (Assistant Referee, Morocco, 2017: Moroccan Groupement National de Football 1)
  • Mariana de Almeida (Assistant Referee, Argentinia, 2017: Argentinian Primera División, 2020: Copa Libertadores, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Edina Alves Battista (Referee, Brazil, 2019: Brazilian Serie A, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Precious Amara (Referee, Sierra Leone, 2019: Sierra Leonean Premier League)
  • Aïssata Amégée (Referee, Togo, 2009: Togolese Championnat National)
  • Juliet Appiah (Referee, Ghana, 2018: Ghanania Premier League)
  • Oleksandra Ardasheva (Assistant Referee, Ukraine, 2018: Premjer Liha, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
  • Carine Atezambong Fomo (Assistant Referee, Cameroon, 2014: Cameroonian Première Division, 2021: African Nations Championship)
  • Lamia Athmana (Referee, Algeria, 2020: Algerian Lique Professionnelle 1)
  • Olinda Augusto (Assistant Referee, Mosambique, 2021: Moçambola)
B
  • Neuza Back (Assistant Referee, Brazil, 2009: Brazilian Serie A, 2020: Copa Sudamericana, 2021: Club World Cup)
  • Ella Banda (Referee, Malawi, before 2011: Malawian Super League)
  • Marie-Soleil Beaudoin (Assistant Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Monia Bedoui (Assistant Referee, Tunisia, 1997: Championnat de Tunisie)
  • Marximina Bernardo (Referee, Angola , 2004: Girabola)
  • Melissa Paola Borjas Pastrana (Referee, Honduras, 2018: Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional de Honduras)
  • Chantal Boudreau (Assistant Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League, 2020: MLS)
  • Makoto Bozono (Assistant Referee, Japan, 2019: AFC Cup)
  • Paula Brady (Assistant Referee, Ireland, 2010: League of Ireland, 2019: Super League as 4th Official)
  • Theresa Bremansu (Referee, Ghana, 2012 or 2018: Ghanania Premier League)
  • Paula Brady (Referee, Ireland, 2015: League of Ireland)
C
  • Marcia Castillo (Assistant Referee, Mexico, ??: Liga MX)
  • Enedina Caudillo (Assistant Referee, Mexico, 2016: Liga MX
  • Agness Chamayere (Referee, Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Mayte Ivonne Chávez Garcia (Assistant Referee, Mexico, 2016: Liga MX)
  • Carol Anne Chenard (Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Memory Chihana (Referee? Assistant Referee?, Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Christina Chioko (Referee? Assistant Referee?, Malawi, before 2021: Malawian Super League)
  • Cristina Cini (Assistant Referee, Italy, 2005: Italian Serie A)
D
  • Dagmar Damková (Referee, Czech, 2003: ePojisteni.cz liga)
  • Nastassia Danchanka (Referee, Belarus, 2020: Wyschejschaja Liha as 4th Official)
  • Leopoldina Ross Davies (Assistant Referee, Guiné-Bissau, ??: Campeonato Nacional da Guiné-Bissau)
  • Fadouma Dia (Referee, Senegal, 2009: Senegalese Ligue 1)
  • Marliatou Diallo (Assistant Referee, Guinea, 2016: Guinean Ligue 1)
  • Karen Díaz Medina (Assistant Referee, Mexico, 2016: Liga MX)
  • Sheena Dickson (Assistant Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Maureen Dzinkambani (Referee? Assistant Referee?, Malawi, ??: Malawian Super League)
E
F
  • Amy Fearn (Assistant Referee, England, 1997: English Premier League)
  • Dianne Ferreira-James (Referee, Guyana, 1998: Guyanese GFF National Super League)
  • Stéphanie Frappart (Referee, France, 2019: French Ligue 1, 2019: Super Cup, 2020: Nations League, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Champions League, 2021: World Cup Qualification)
  • Stéphanie Fortin (Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League, 2021: MLS)
  • Cheryl Foster (Referee, Wales, 2018: Cymru Premier)
G
  • Marie-Han Gagnon-Chretien (Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League, 2021: MLS)
  • Ketevan Gaiparashvili (Assistant Referee, Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga)
  • Dorsaf Ganouati (Referee, Tunisia, 2019: Championnat de Tunisie)
  • Jennifer Garner (Assistant Referee, USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Sylvina Garnett Welma (Referee, USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Gertrude Gebhard (Assistant Referee, Germany, 1995: German Bundesliga)
  • Svetlana Grushko (Assistant Referee, Ukraine, 2020: Premjer Liha)
  • Francia María González (Referee, Mexico, 2021: Liga MX as 4th Official)
  • Astrid Azucena Gramajo Ramirez (Referee, Guatemala, 2020: Liga Nacional de Guatemala as 4th Official, 2021: Liga Nacional de Guatemala as referee)
  • Eness Gumbo (Referee, Malawi, after 2014: Malawian Super League)
H
  • Sarah Ho (Assistant Referee, Australia, 2007: A League)
  • Nicola Holika (Assistant Referee, Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • Sandra Hunt (Referee, USA, 1998: MLS)
I
  • Suavis Iratunga (Referee, Burundi, 2016: Burundian Ligue A)
  • Mimisen Agatha Iyorhe (Assistant Referee, Nigeria, 2015: Nigeria Professional Football League, 2021: African Nations Championship)
J
  • Kate Jacewicz (Referee, Australia, 2020: A League)
  • Sarah Jones (Assistant Referee, New Zealand, 2016: A League)
  • K
  • Bouchra Karboubi (Referee, Morocco, 2020: Moroccan Groupement National de Football 1)
  • Lata-I-Sia Kaumatule (Assistant Referee, Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • Mercy Kayira (Referee, New Zealand, 2019: New Zealand Football Championship)
  • Doreen Kendi (Assistant Referee, Kenya, 2017: Kenyan Premier League)
  • Mathabo Kolokotoane (Referee, Lesotho, 2013 or 2014: Lesotho Premier League)
  • Katja Koroleva (Referee, USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Chrysoula Kourompylia (Assistant Referee, Greece, 2010: Greek Super League, 2014: Europa League as 4th Official, 2015: Champions League Qualification, 2015: Europa League as Referee)
  • Bernadettar Kwimbira (Assistant Referee, Malawi, before 1996: Malawian Super League, 2021: African Nations Championship)
L
  • ‘Ofaloto La’ie La’akulu (Assistant Referee, Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • Corinne Lagrange (Assistant Referee, France, 1999: French Ligue 1, 2001: UI Cup, 2003: Europa League, 2005: Chamions League Qualification)
  • Aline Lopes Lambert (Assistant Referee, Brazil, 2003: Brazilian Serie A)
  • Nancy Lay (Referee, USA, 1998: MLS)
  • Julia Lekgowe (Referee, Botswana, 2015: Botswana Premier League)
  • Aissata Boudy Lengwe (Referee, Mauretania, 2019: Ligue 1 Mauretania as 4th Official)
  • Gladys Lengwe (Referee, Zambia, 2011: Super Division of Zambia)
  • Gabrielle Lemieux (Assistant Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Yvone Letota (Assistant Referee, Botswana, before 2016: Botswana Premier League)
  • Aurore Christelle M. Ligan (Referee, Benin, ??: Championnat National du Benin)/ 
M
  • Khatuna Maisuradze (Referee, Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga)
  • Ethel Majawa (Referee? Assistant Referee?, Malawi, ??: Malawian Super League)
  • Ilisapeti Malekamu (Assistant Referee, Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League, 2019: OFC Confed Cup)
  • Peggy Manca (Assistant Referee, South Africa, 2004: South African Premier Soccer League) – Caution: She was not the first match official in the South African Premier Soccer League. Unfortunately, I do not know the name of the first official.
  • Fatmata Mansaray (Referee, Sierra Leone, 2019: Sierra Leonean Premier League)
  • Myriam Marcotte (Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Felisha Mariscal (Assistant Referee, USA, 2020: MLS)
  • Sian Massey-Ellis (Assistant Referee, England, 2011: English Premier League, 2019: English Europa League)
  • Brooke Mayo (USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Happiness Mbandambanda (Assistant Referee, Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Alicia Messer (Assistant Referee, USA, 2017 as AVAR)
  • Daiana Milone (Assistant Referee, Argentinia, 2017: Argentinian Primera División, 2020: Copa Sudamericana, 2020: Copa Libertadores)
  • Christina Mkweu (Assistant Referee, Malawi, before 2021: Malawian Super League)
  • Faith Mloyi (Assistant Referee, Zimbabwe, 2019: Zimbabwean Premier Soccer League)
  • Roda Mondlane (Assistant Referee, Mosambique, 2021: Moçambola)
  • Kateryna Monzul (Referee, Ukraine, 2016: Premjer Liha, 2020: Nations League, 2020: Europa Cup)
  • Mayra Alejandra Mora Cereiro (Assistant Referee, Mexico, 2016: Liga MX)
  • Tania Morais (Referee, Luxemburg, 2013: LuxembourgianBGL Ligue)
  • Jessica Fernanda Morales (Assistant Referee, Mexico, 2020: Liga MX)
  • Salima Mukansanga (Referee & Assistant Referee, Rwanda, 2018: Rwandan National Football League)
N
  • Cindy Andrea Nahuelcoy Jara (Assistant Referee, Chile, 2020: Primera División del Fútbol Profesional Chileno as AVAR)
  • Charity Ndozi Mlumbe (Referee? Assistant Referee?, Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Kathryn Nesbitt (Assistant Referee, USA, 2015: MLS)
  • Manuela Nicolosi (Assistant Referee, France, 2019: Super League)
  • Ema Novo (Referee, Mosambique, 2021: Moçambola)
  • Martha Nyekanyeka (Referee, Malawi (before 2007: Malawian Super League)
  • Martha Nyirenda (Referee? Assistant Referee?, Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League 
O
  • Michelle O’Neill (Assistant Referee, Ireland, 2019: Super League)
  • Ana Paula Oliveira (Assistant Referee, Brazil, 2003: Brazilian Serie A, 2005: Copa Libertadores)
  • Silvia Regina de Oliveira (Referee, Brazil, 2003: Brazilian Serie A, 2003: Copa Sudamericana)
P
  • Tori Penso (Referee, USA, 2020: MLS)
  • Priscila Eritzel Pérez Borja (Referee, Mexico, 2021, Liga MX as 4th Official)
  • Ghislaine Peron-Labbé (Assistant Referee, France, 1998: French Ligue 1)
  • Nicole Petignat (Referee, Switzerland, 1999: Swiss Super League, 2000: Austrian Bundesliga, 2003: Europa League Qualification (formerly known as UEFA Cup), 2006: UI Cup)
  • Guadalupe Porras Ayuso (Assistant Referee, Spain, 2019: Spanish Primera División, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
Q
  • Zulma Quiñónez (Paraguay, 2020: División Profesional de la Asociación Paraguaya de Fútbol as VAR)
R
  • Lidwine Pelagie Rakotozafinoro (Assistant Referee, Madagascar, after 2018: Madagascan THB Champions League, 2019: Africa Cup of Nations Qualification)
  • Sandra Elizabeth Ramírez Aleman (Assistant Referee, Mexico, 2020: Liga MX)
  • Tshepiso Ramothogobeng (Assistant Referee, Botswana, 2015: Botswana Premier League)
  • Maria Rebello (Referee, India, 2014: I League)
  • Casey Reibelt (Referee, Australia, 2020: A League)
  • Sopho Rijamadze (Assistant Referee, Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga)
  • Anastasiya Romanyuk (Referee, Ukraine, 2018: Premjer Liha as 4th Official, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
  • Jonesia Rukaya Kabakama (Referee, Tanzania, before 2015: Tanzanian Premier League)
  • Emanuela Rusta (Referee, Albania, 2019: Albanian Kategoria Superiore)
  • Stella Ruvinga (Assistant Referee, Zimbabwe, before 2014: Zimbabwean Premier Soccer League)
S
  • Vika Sakhuria (Referee, Georgia, 2020: Erovnuli Liga as 4th Official)
  • Veronika Schluchter-Maerki (Switzerland, 1999: Europa League Qualification)
  • Kari Seitz (Referee, USA, 1998: MLS)
  • Ndèye Fatou Sère (Referee, Senegal, ??: Senegalese Ligue 1)
  • Vistoria Nuusiku Shangula (Referee, Namibia, 2019: Namibia Premier League)
  • Eliza Sichinga (Assistant Referee, Malawi, after 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Claris Simango (Assistant Referee, Zimbabwe, approx. 2014: Zimbabwean Premier Soccer League)
  • Jane Silungwe (Referee, Malawi, before 2014: Malawian Super League)
  • Natalie Simon (Referee, USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Melissa Snedden (Assistant Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Elodie Somé (Assistant Referee, Burkina Faso, before 2019: Première Division of Burkina Faso)
  • Esther Staubli (Referee, Switzerland, 2018: Swiss Super League as 4th Official)
  • Bibiana Steinhaus (Referee, Germany, 2007: German Bundesliga as 4th Official, 2017: German Bundesliga as Referee)
  • Maryna Serhiivna Striletska (Assistant Referee, Ukraine, 2018: Premjer Liha, 2020: Europa League, 2020: Nations League)
T
  • Telesia Teisina (Assistant Referee, Tonga, before 2019: Tonga Major League)
  • Sara Telek (Assistant Referee, Austria, 2020: Austrian Bundesliga)
  • Naomi Teshirogi (Assistant Referee, Japan, 2019: AFC Cup)
  • Volha Tsiareshka (Referee, Belarus, 2020: Wyschejschaja Liha as 4th Official)
  • Wendy Toms (Assistant Referee, England, 1997: English Premier League)
  • María Isabel Tovar (Assistant Referee, Mexico, 2003: Liga MX
  • Virginia Tovar Díaz (Referee, Mexico, 2004: Liga MX)
  • Gisela Fabiana Trucco, (Assistant Referee, Argentinia, 2017, Argentinian Primera División)
  • Annemarie Tuafe (Referee, Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
  • Adama Turay (Referee, Sierra Leone, 2019: Sierra Leonean Premier League)
  • Tiffani Turpin (Assistant Referee, USA, 2021: MLS)
  • Tapaita Tutone (Referee, Tonga, ??: Tonga Major League)
U
  • Claudia Umpierrez (Referee, Uruguay, 2016: Primera División Uruguaya)
  • Christina Unkel (Assistant Referee, USA, 2021: MLS)
V
  • Alexis Vaughan (Assistant Referee, Canada, 2019: Canadian Premier League)
  • Letticia Viana (Referee, Eswatini, 2007: Premier League of Eswatini)
  • Nelly Viennot (Assistant Referee, France, 1996: French Ligue 1, 1999: European Championship Qualification, 2000: Champions League Qualification, 2000: Europa League Qualification, 2001: Champions League, 2003: Europa League)
W
  • Cari Louise Williams (Assistant Referee, Wales, 2020: Cymru Premier) 
X
Y
  • Yoshimi Yamashita (Referee, Japan, 2019: AFC Cup) 
Z
  • Rose Zimba (Referee, Malawi, before 2019: Malawian Super League)

Ockenheim Stories

As a historian, I am also researching the history of my hometown Ockenheim in southwest Germany. Thus, I have collected a comprehensive archive on a variety of medieval documents.

#ArchivDingsTag

As a city archivist with a love of digital literacy, I post something about Bingen’s history from the Bingen Archive weekly on Facebook and #ArchivDingsTag. [Direct link to Facebook]

Football History

modern football

On Nachspielzeiten I have also published a number of articles on football history, for example on football myths or Fellowes’ The English Game – how true is the story?

Football Makes History

Football is closely interwoven with politics and everyday life – that is a fact. Football Makes History is a European project funded by Euroclio that brings together history educators and youth workers from all over Europe to develop new educational resources that can help young people explore European history and heritage through the lens of football, as well as use football to tackle social exclusion.

Legende Verloren

In 1990, the Women’s Bundesliga was founded in Germany. And who scored the first goal … no, that was not known for thirty years. The reason: it was not noted  at the time and was not researched correctly afterwards. Legende Verloren (Lost Legends) is researching the development and culture of women’s football worldwide. The podcast is in German.