The Laws of the Game are the name of the football rules. The rules of the association football. Since 1858 the rules of Sheffield FC exist, since 1863 the FA Rules. In the beginning the laws contained only a few sentences, in the meantime there are several pages with several illustrations for clarification.
A short journey through time on the development of video replay in football
The history of video replay is also a history of the use of photographic, video and television technology and especially the slow motion.
The birth of modern football in England
Modern football was born in the second half the 19th century. The first seed was scattered in 1850 with an extension of the Factory Acts, the Compromise Act. Among other things it introduced the end of work at 2 pm on Saturdays. This gave factory workers free time for the first time.
Football was a sport that cost relatively little money and some factory owners supported the sporting activities of their workers, provided equipment and sometimes paid for trips to away games. A win-win situation, because this way the owners were sure that their workers did not spend their free time lazing around with excessive alcohol consumption and the soccer-loving workers had an alternative – also for miners and their physically and mentally exhausting work underground. There were also many works clubs at the time, some of which still exist today, such as the Dial Square munitions factory (Arsenal FC), the Thames Iron Works (West Ham) or the Newton Heath LYR Company (Manchester United).
The pure facts about the handball can be found here. (First comes the unfair game, then the handball).
The question of what and why in handball is actually very philosophical.
I have still not managed to write it down comprehensively, but also concisely and understandably. Even if I only outline it now, it will be long. Sorry for that.
First: Discussions about the handball are not new, there are more and less of them.
The focus also changes again and again. It’s the same with the offside, by the way. On the one hand, the offside and handball have hardly been changed significantly. The small changes and clarifications reflect a kind of zeitgeist. Said focus of the discussions.
In the very beginning (1860s), there was the question of running with the ball. Football was more and more divided into (association) football and rugby. This took a few years, because although running was banned in the FA Rules in 1863, the Fair Catch remained permitted until 1871.
In the 1930s, a completely new term came up in some countries as Germany and the Netherlands: The Schutzhand / beschermen. And the discussions flared up for several years. Permitted because protective reflex? Not allowed because you could also turn away? Permitted from a certain proximity, because then short distance?
These questions were quickly clarified (the protective handball was never allowed), but it still remains a myth today in some countries.
And then there’s the thing with the intention: Since 1995 the handball doesn’t have to be intentional anymore, it only has to be deliberate. Is there a purpose? Or carelessness? Then the handball is deliberate.
As I said, the handball has always been strongly discussed and currently more than before many years. So it seems that there was not so much discussion in the past. Depending on when you watch football. Actually it was just the sole of a curve.
- 1897: “wilfully”
- 1898-1995: „intentionally“
- since 1995: „deliberately“
Since 2014, attempts have been made to better formulate the handball law in order to clarify more clearly the lines between what is permitted and what is an offence.
Here is a wonderful Dutch data statistic from 1932, which Jurryt van de Vooren has published in his blog
Finally, in 1932 a remarkable visualization was made of DHC against GSV, part of which here.
Soccer statistics seem to have started in the 1930s, even if only occasionally. By the way, Central Europe won 3-1, despite a goal by Bakhuys. But you could already have seen that in the statistics of that day.
he writes in this article (in Dutch) and gives further examples.
A short reminder.
Law ≠ Justice.
A law is standardised and therefore objective, justice is a moral value and therefore subjective.
Interpretations should make law more fair. – Keyword “spirit of the game”. – But they also make the rules “subjective”. Keyword “grey area”.
Meaning that for a person this is fair, or at least the fairest possibility within the limitations of the rules – and with regard to the game. So it can not only differ from referee to referee.
After all, every person does the same in everyday life.
Yesterday I had a short discussion on Twitter with Ben van Maaren and Javier Bravo about goal referees.
Hello Petra, please read this thread. My Spanish friend, Javier Bravo, sent me this photo of a “juez de gol”, a goal line referee. They were active for about 20 years in Spain, from the 1910s till the 1930s. Isn’t that fascinating? Have you ever heard of this? https://t.co/zsRxL73C03
— RefBooks (@RefereeingBooks) July 12, 2020
I knew until now that they were used in the sport association of workers in Germany in the 1920s. And that the minute from AGM 1893 by The IFAB mentioned them. But I only suspected that these are not the only two mentions. Goals are too important for football – both economically and psychologically.
But the fact that goal referees were appointed in Spain for probably more than 25 years, and that they were in the top league, also surprised me.
In the minute of The IFAB there is no criticism to the RFEF, the Spanish Football Federation. The association was a founding member of FIFA and almost permanently its member.
In the article on football and technology, I have therefore added a passage on goal referees.
But it also affected competitive matches played by members of FIFA. In the top Spanish league, goal referees (“juez de gol”) were appointed from 1914 at the latest. This was not a brief experiment, although the Spanish Football Association was a member of FIFA from the very beginning (with one brief exception). Goal referees existed in Spain until 1939. Ein spanischer Bericht verwendete eins der damaligen Fotos für seinen Bericht über Michel Platins Forderung nach Torrichtern “UEFA president Michel Platini wants to get him back to oversee what happens in the areas. The goal judge returns.” is the English translation of the title of this Spanish article. Further articles about goal judges in Spain are “El ‘test del gol’, peor hoy que hace cien años” and “La UEFA ensaya con dos jueces de gol“.
The article can be found here.
The offside rule is currently one of the most commonly used words when it comes to football. Why does this rule even exist? What is the meaning of the offside rule? Why is it the way it is today? And since when?
Why don’t we have two referees on the football pitch instead of VAR? This sounds like a plausible idea that is worth thinking about. But it’s not a new idea.
Not new at all
Since the 19th century there have been repeated discussions and attempts to run the game with two referees on the field. Reasons were on the one hand to make the stoppage time for decisions shorter and on the other hand to have a “back-up” to penalise fouls, which neither the referee nor his*her assistant referees noticed during other games.
Football offside – the history started in the public schools of England in the 19th century, when football was a mix of rugby and soccer.
The public schools attended by the sons of the gentlemen took advantage of the football game, among other things, to stay fit in the cooler months. But each of them had its own set of rules. Not everyone mentioned an offside and sometimes the rules were the same.