All posts by Petra

In dubio pro reo principle in football?

in dubio pro reo football

In fact, the in dubio pro reo principle that the attacking player is proved right in case of doubt, i.e. the game is not interrupted, has never existed in football. This is not about the principle of presumption of innocence.

Sometimes this principle is confused with the existing advantage rule. However, this rule is used when a team has a disadvantage (for example a foul play), but remains in possession of the ball.

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Cards in football – when were they introduced?


Cards in football were introduced not until the end of the 1960s. Cautions and dismissals were given orally. This was not always easy in international games due to language barriers.

At the 1966 World Cup, German referee Rudolf Kreitlein tried in vain to send Argentine player Antonio Rattín off the field. But he Rattín did not understand or did not want to understand. He was a whole head taller than referee Kreitlein (who measured only 1.60 m / 5’3”) and finally had to be escorted from the field by the police.

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Offside rule reflections: It is new or old?

Offside reflections

Since the 2019/20 season there have been new discussions in several countries about the offside rule. The reason for this is the introduction of the VAR and the calibrated line: this is much better for the human eye in tight offside situations. But it is not perfect, because you cannot travel back in time yet. You can rewind the recording and rewind it very slowly, but in the end it’s just single frames. 50 or 150 frames per minute.

So suggestions like:

You only shall be offside [certain distance] meters in front of the goal!


Abolish the offside rule!

Neither are new ideas.

A summary:

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